• What Are the Types of Stresses in the Earths Crust

    Compression is a type of stress that causes the rocks to push or squeeze against one another. It targets the center of the rock and can cause either horizontal or vertical orientation. In horizontal compression stress, the crust can thicken or shorten. In vertical compression stress.

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  • Shear (geology) Wikipedia

    Shear (geology) Shear is the response of a rock to deformation usually by compressive stress and forms particular textures. Shear can be homogeneous or non-homogeneous, and may be pure shear or simple shear. Study of geological shear is related to the study of structural geology, rock microstructure or rock texture.

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  • Laboratory Testing and Interpretation of Rock Properties

    Using this test method to determine the shear strength of intact rock may generate overturning moments that induce premature tensile breaking. Thus, the specimen would fail in tension first rather than in shear. Rock shear strength is influenced by the ove rburden stresses; therefore, the larger the overburden stress, the larger the shear strength.

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  • Shear strength criteria for rock rock joints rockfill

    The actual shear strength of rock masses, meaning the prior failure of the intact bridges and then shear on the fractures and joints at larger strains, is shown in Fig. 1 (units of 蟽 1 and 蟽 2 are in MPa).

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  • Chapter 1 Tension Compression and Shear

    In compression the elongation is the cumulative of the stretching throughout the length L of the bar, then the elongation per unit length is called strain = C (normal strain : associated with normal stress) L tensile strain : positive compressive strain : negative.

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  • Fracture (geology) Wikipedia

    Shear fracture (blue) under shear loading (black arrows) in rock. Tensile cracks, also referred to as wing cracks (red) grow at an angle from the edges of the shear fracture allowing the shear fracture to propagate by the coalescing of these tensile fractures.

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  • Tension Compression Shear and Torsion

    Tension and compression stress are both sometimes referred to as axial stress because the forces act along a structure鈥檚 longitudinal axis. Shear The best way.

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  • Rock Triaxial Test

    The rock triaxial test was designed to determine the shear strength of rock samples. Different types of rocks have largely varying shear strength values, and the shear strength of a type of rock can vary greatly depending on its confining pressure, mineral structure, the moisture in the rock, and many other factors.

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  • Laboratory Testing and Interpretation of Rock Properties

    Rock shear strength is influenced by the ove rburden stresses; therefore, the larger the overburden stress, the larger the shear strength. In some cases, it may be desirable to conduct t ests in-situ rather than in the laboratory to more accurately determine a representative shear strength of the rock mass.

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  • Mechanical Properties of Intact Rock and Fractures in

    Rock and rock joints, it is necessary to measure the properties in the field or laboratory tests. Triaxial compression and shear tests are commonly used for determining the failure properties of intact rock and the friction properties of a jointed rock specimen, respectively. Several triaxial compression and shear.

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  • Laboratory Testing of IntactLaboratory Testing of Intact Rocks

    ? Determine compression (P-wave) and shear (Sshear (S-wave) velocities of rock corewave) velocities of rock core ? Nondestructive measurements ? Fast and inexpensive ? Evaluation of small-strain elastic stiffness (strains < 10-6 mm/mm) ? May be used to evaluate anisotropyMay be used to evaluate anisotropy FIG.8-7.

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  • ASTM D7012 14e1 Standard Test Methods for Compressive

    Significance and Use. 5.2 Method C, uniaxial compressive strength of rock is used in many design formulas and is sometimes used as an index property to select the appropriate excavation technique. Deformation and strength of rock are known to be functions of confining pressure. Method A, triaxial compression test,.

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  • Rock strength from log parameters PetroWiki

    Relationships based on velocity, lithology and density. The shear modulus (or velocity) should be the most sensitive measure of strength, and shear properties are little affected by fluid saturations. Whenever possible, shear wave data should be collected and used in.

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  • Construction Materials Testing Equipment Soils Rock

    Large shear frame System Benefits Unmatched automation from test start to finish - 2 to 32 times faster results and labor time savings of 30% to 95% vs. manual testing.

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  • Geology Chapter 8 Test Flashcards | Quizlet

    A rock with metamorphic minerals but no foliation or lineation. Shale is metamorphosed into three rock types: (1) a banded gneissic rock; (2) a rock with small mica crystals with a shiny aspect; (3) a very.

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  • Chapter 4 Engineering Classification of Rock Materials

    The rock unit is the basic mapping unit for the rock material field classification (RMFC) system. It is de-fined as a body of rock that is identified in the field and mapped according to measurable or otherwise describable physical properties or features at a scale useful for project analysis. A rock unit is consistent in its mineralogical composi.

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  • Geology Deformation Flashcards | Quizlet

    Geology -- Deformation. In any sequence of sedimentary strata, the order in which the strata were deposited is from the bottom to the top; oldest rocks are on the bottom of the stack, youngest on the top.

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  • Compression test device for rock specimens Rock mechanics

    The Rock core shall have a diameter from 54.7 mm (NX type) to 63.5 mm (HQ type) Heavy duty / high stiffness compression device; Max. load capacity: 1200 kN ; High stiffness structure and the high performance steel making this device particularly suitable for high strength rock specimen featuring brittle properties and explosive failure.

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  • Mechanical Properties of Intact Rock and Fractures in

    Rock and rock joints, it is necessary to measure the properties in the field or laboratory tests. Triaxial compression and shear tests are commonly used for determining the failure properties of intact rock and the friction properties of a jointed rock specimen, respectively. Several triaxial compression and shear.

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  • Compressional and shear velocities PetroWiki

    Compressional and shear velocities. In compressional waves, the particle motion is in the direction of propagation. In shear waves, the particle motion is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Understanding the velocity of these waves provide valuable information about the rocks and fluids through which they propagate.

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  • Laboratory Testing for Rocks

    Determine compression (P-wave) and shear (S-wave) velocities of rock core Nondestructive measurements Fast and inexpensive Evaluation of small-strain elastic stiffness (strains < 10-6 mm/mm) May be used to evaluate anisotropy FIG.8-7.

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  • Rock Failure Topics Stanford University

    1. When rock fails in compression, the compressive stress exceeds the compressive strength. 2. Even poorly-consolidated sands are characterized by a high coefficient of internal friction. Weak rocks are weak because they lack cohesion. 3. Intermediate principal stress (S 2) probably influences compressive strength only at very great depth. 4.

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  • Unconfined Compression Test

    Unconfined Compression Test (UCT) is a simple laboratory testing method to assess the mechanical properties of rocks and fine-grained soils. It provides a measures of the undrained strength and the stress-strain characteristics of the rock or soil.

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  • Chapter 4 Engineering Classification of Rock Materials

    Rock material properties are measurable or describ-able lithologic properties of rock material that can be evaluated in hand specimens or tested in the laborato-ry. Rock material properties are related to the physical properties of the rock-forming minerals and the type of mineral bonding. Properties are determined from.

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  • Sept30 Ch 10 SOEST

    Rock type The variation of these factors determines if a rock will fault or fold. Rocks are: Elastic and brittle near the earths surface More plastic and ductile deeper in the crust Because of the increasing temperature and pressure.

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  • Design Manual Engineering Properties of Soil and Rock

    Rock Strata. Determination of design parameters for rock should take into consideration the in-situ rock properties (condition of the rock mass), which are generally controlled by the discontinuities within the rock mass and not the properties of the intact material.

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  • 4. Drilling and Boring of Rock The National Academies Press

    One of the important practical applications of fracture of brittle solids in compression is the penetration of drilling tools. Examples include percussive and rotary drilling, drag bit drilling, and ploughing or planing of rock formations (e.g., coal).

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  • Rock shear box apparatus

    It is a simple and practical method of determining the strength and slope stability of rock, both in the field and in the laboratory. The apparatus consists of a shear box designed to accept samples not larger than 115x125 mm, or alternatively cores up to 102 mm dia.

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  • Rock Compression

    Consider this rock shape with discontinuities you can see on this figure. If the block highlighted in yellow detaches from the face, it would slide and that shows that the discontinuity is not subjected to tension or compression. This type of loading is called shear and it occurs when the forces acting on the specimen are not aligned anymore.

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  • A log based analysis to estimate mechanical properties and

    Dynamic elastic rock properties including the Young鈥檚 modulus (EMDyn) and Poisson鈥檚 ratio ( ) are calculated in relation with the rock density, , and compression and shear wave velocity, Vp and Vs, (i.e. inverse of compression and shear transit time DT and DTS from sonic log) as below: ( ) (3 4 ) 2 2 2 2 2 c s s c s dyn V V V V V E (1).

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